Source code for advertools.knowledge_graph

.. _knowledge_graph:

Import and Analyze Knowledge Graph Results on a Large Scale

If :ref:`analyzing SERPs <serp>` is the first step in understanding your
rankings on search engines, then analyzing the knowledge graph can be thought
of as step zero.

SERP positions for a certain keyword show how each page is ranked in comparison
to all other eligible pages. Knowledge graph scores on the other hand, show the
ranks of the different meanings that a word can take for Google (a person, a
city, a brand, etc.).

.. WARNING:: From `Google's documentation <>`_:
   This API is not suitable for use as a production-critical service. Your
   product should not form a critical dependence on this API.

It's not clear whether this is from a technical reliability or a content
correctness point of view, but it is what the docs mention. So please keep this
in mind when using it.

Account Setup

In order to be able to send requests, you will need to `create a project
<>`_, `set up billing
<>`_, and `activate the knowledge
graph API <>`_ for your
project. You will then need to `create credentials
<>`_ (API Key).
Once you have that, you can use it as your ``key`` parameter when running
requests, as shown below.

How to use Google's Knowledge Graph API

What is "google"? Is it a search engine, a company, a brand, a very large
number? What else is it?

And if it is all of those things, what is the relative ranking of each? What
is the source of the information, its URL, images (if any)?

.. code-block:: python

    >>> google =  knowledge_graph(key=key, query='google')
    >>> google
         query	resultScore	                               result.@type                  result.description
    0	google	     203191	   ['Corporation', 'Organization', 'Thing']                  Technology company	        Google
    1	google	      49462	                       ['WebSite', 'Thing']                              Google         Search
    2	google	      19142	                       ['WebSite', 'Thing']                                 nan          Gmail
    3	google	      13251	              ['Brand', 'WebSite', 'Thing']                             Website	   Google Maps
    4	google	       7549	['WebSite', 'SoftwareApplication', 'Thing']                             Website   Google Drive
    5	google	       6853	                       ['WebSite', 'Thing']                             Website	   Google Play
    6	google	       6543	           ['SoftwareApplication', 'Thing']                         Web browser  Google Chrome
    7	google	       4312	   ['Corporation', 'Organization', 'Thing']  Multinational conglomerate company  Alphabet Inc.
    8	google	       3395	           ['SoftwareApplication', 'Thing']                                 nan Google Account
    9	google	       1306	                                  ['Thing']                                 nan         Google

    >>> google.columns
    Index(['query', 'resultScore', '@type', 'result.@type', 'result.description',
       'result.image.contentUrl', 'result.image.url',
       'result.detailedDescription.url', 'result.detailedDescription.license',
       'result.url', '', 'result.@id', 'query_time'],

The above table is a sample response from the :func:`knowledge_graph` function.
Many more columns are available as you can see in the second line above.
We can see that "google" is a company, with a result score of 203,191 and it is
a search engine/website with a result score of 49,462. It is then understood as
an email application, a mapping application, and so on, as you can see in the
`` column.

You can also see that we get the types under which this result falls, in the
`result.@type` column. Multiple types show the type inheritance, and as you can
also see, everything is a "Thing". This is the top element in the type
hierarchy under which everything belongs.

Like the :ref:`Google SERP <serp>` and :ref:`YouTube SERP <serp>`, functions
this funcion works in the same manner, creating, sending, and aggregating the
product of the arguments passed
to it.

For example if you run

>>> knowledge_graph(key=key, query=["google", "bing"], languages=["en", "fr", "de"])

The function will send 2 (queries) x 3 languages = 6 requests.

(google, en), (google, fr), (google, de) , (bing, en), (bing, fr), (bing, de)

This is actually the main value of having this function, because you usually
want a large sample to evaluate certain keywords across languages or types.

Let's check what "seo" and "search engine optimization" mean in different

>>> seo = knowledge_graph(
...     key=key,
...     query=["seo", "search engine optimization"],
...     languages=["en", "es", "de"],
... )
>>> seo
        query	                        languages	resultScore	                     result.@type	                                   result.description
0	search engine optimization	de      	       3587	    Suchmaschinenoptimierung	         ['Thing']                                         nan
1	search engine optimization	de      	        321	    Lokale Suchmaschinenoptimierung	 ['Thing']                                         nan
2	search engine optimization	de      	        252	    Suchmaschinenmarketing	         ['Thing']                                         nan
4	search engine optimization	en      	      71756	    Search engine optimization	         ['Thing']                                         nan
5	search engine optimization	en      	       5056	    Search engine marketing	         ['Thing']                                         nan
6	search engine optimization	en      	        576	    SEOP, Inc.	                         ['Organization', 'Corporation', 'Thing']	   Company
13	seo	                        de      	       3313	    Seoul	                         ['AdministrativeArea', 'Thing', 'City', 'Place']  Hauptstadt von S├╝dkorea
14	seo	                        de      	       1509	    Seo Yea-ji	                         ['Thing', 'Person']	                           Schauspielerin
15	seo	                        de      	        584	    Suchmaschinenoptimierung	         ['Thing']	                                   nan
33	seo	                        es      	       1509	    Seo Ye-ji	                         ['Person', 'Thing']	                           Actriz
34	seo	                        es      	        584	    Posicionamiento en buscadores	 ['Thing']	                                   nan
35	seo	                        es      	        316	    Jin	                                 ['Person', 'Thing']	                           Cantante
53	seo	                        en      	       8760	    Search engine optimization	         ['Thing']	                                   nan
54	seo	                        en      	       3313	    Seoul	                         ['AdministrativeArea', 'Thing', 'City', 'Place']  Capital of South Korea
55	seo	                        en      	       1435	    Sulli	                         ['Thing', 'Person']	                           South Korean actress

>>> seo.columns
Index(['query', 'languages', 'resultScore', '@type', '',
       'result.@type', 'result.@id', 'result.image.contentUrl',
       'result.image.url', 'result.detailedDescription.license',
       'result.detailedDescription.articleBody', 'result.description',
       'result.url', 'query_time'],

It's interesting to see how the same word can mean different things in
different contexts.

"""  # noqa: E501

import logging
from concurrent import futures

import pandas as pd
import requests

from advertools.serp import _dict_product

param_regex = "^query$|^ids$|^languages$|^types$|^prefix$|^limit$"

[docs] def knowledge_graph( key, query=None, ids=None, languages=None, types=None, prefix=None, limit=None ): """Query Google's Knowledge Graph with any combination of parameters. Note that Google's documentation states that "This API is not suitable for use as a production-critical service." So please keep this in mind. Parameters ---------- key : str Your Google developer key. query : str A literal string to search for in the Knowledge Graph. ids : list A list of entity IDs to search for in the Knowledge Graph. languages : list The list of language codes (defined in ISO 639) to run the query with, for instance `en`. types : str Restricts returned entities to those of the specified types. For example, you can specify `Person` (as defined in to restrict the results to entities representing people. If multiple types are specified, returned entities will contain one or more of these types. prefix : bool Enables prefix (initial substring) match against names and aliases of entities. For example, a prefix `Jung` will match entities and aliases such as `Jung`, `Jungle`, and `Jung-ho Kang`. limit : int Limits the number of entities to be returned. Maximum is 500. Default is 20. Requests with high limits have a higher chance of timing out. Returns ------- kg_df : pandas.DataFrame A DataFrame of all responses. """ params = locals() base_url = "" supplied_params = {k: v for k, v in params.items() if params[k] is not None} for p in supplied_params: if isinstance(supplied_params[p], (str, int)): supplied_params[p] = [supplied_params[p]] params_list = _dict_product(supplied_params) result_df = pd.DataFrame() def single_request(param): nonlocal result_df resp = requests.get(base_url, params=param) param_log = ", ".join([k + "=" + str(v) for k, v in param.items()])"Requesting: " + param_log) df = pd.json_normalize(resp.json(), record_path="itemListElement") del param["key"] param_columns = {k: [v] if df.empty else v for k, v in param.items()} df = df.assign(**param_columns) result_df = pd.concat([result_df, df], ignore_index=True) with futures.ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=16) as executor:, params_list) reordered_df = pd.concat( [ result_df.filter(regex=param_regex), result_df.filter(regex=f"^(?!{param_regex})"), ], axis=1, ) reordered_df["query_time"] = pd.Timestamp.utcnow() return reordered_df